Chinese tea culture
The Chinese people, in their drinking of tea, place much significance on the act of "savoring." "Savoring tea" is not only a way to discern good tea from mediocre tea, but also how people take delight in their reverie and in tea-drinking itself. Snatching a bit of leisure from a busy schedule, making a kettle of strong tea, securing a serene space, and serving and drinking tea by yourself can help banish fatigue and frustration, improve your thinking ability and inspire you with enthusiasm. You may also imbibe it slowly in small sips to appreciate the subtle allure of tea-drinking until your spirits soar up and up into a sublime aesthetic realm. Buildings, gardens, ornaments and tea sets are the elements that form the ambiance for savoring tea. A tranquil, refreshing, comfortable and neat locale is certainly desirable for drinking tea. Chinese gardens are well known in the world and beautiful Chinese landscapes are too numerous to count. Teahouses tucked away in gardens and nestled beside the natural beauty of mountains and rivers are enchanting places of repose for people to rest and recreate themselves.
China is a country with a time-honored civilization and a land of ceremony and decorum. Whenever guests visit, it is necessary to make and serve tea to them. Before serving tea, you may ask them for their preferences as to what kind of tea they fancy and serve them the tea in the most appropriate teacups. In the course of serving tea, the host should take careful note of how much water is remaining in the cups and in the kettle. Usually, if the tea is made in a teacup, boiling water should be added after half of the cup has been consumed; and thus the cup is kept filled so that the tea retains the same bouquet and remains pleasantly warm throughout the entire course of tea-drinking. Snacks, sweets and other dishes may be served at tea time to compliment the fragrance of the tea and to allay one's hunger.
The formation and development of Chinese tea culture
China is the hometown of tea, is the world's first discovery of tea, tea and the use of tea cultivation countries. The origin of tea at least the main Qi Wannian history. Tea was found and the use of human, about Siwuqiannian history.
In accordance with "The Book of Songs" and other relevant documentation, in the pre-history, "Tu" refers to all types of wild plants bitterness of food raw materials. Fresh medical unity in the history of the times, the Zhike tea vegetable oil, the Qing God, Xiaoshi, in addition to Zhang, the medical function is to facilitate wait until it is not difficult for people found. However, the general medical practices for the development of an exclusive drink often, there must also be some special factors, namely, real-life people in a particular need. Bashu region, to the multiple for Jiyi "Zhang smoke" land. "Barbarian people living with tea, the lack of will." (Ai Qing weeks of "Zhu Guo Travels" Volume II) is often vulgar Bashu people eating spicy side, thousands of habit, still. It is this natural geographical conditions and the resulting decision of the people's dietary practices, making Bashu people first "JIANCHALING" Apart from taking to Zhang Qi, antipyretic drugs. Jiufu-Xi, a medicinal purpose gradually Subduction, tea has become a daily drink was. Qin-Ba-Shu is likely to see this as a daily drink tea customs.
Tea from the medicinal drink into a regular habit, the strict sense of "tea" would then have its typical signs that "tea" (cha) the emergence of sound. Guo Pu Note "Yi-release", "Jia": "small trees such as gardenia, Dong-Sheng Ye, can be boiled for soup to drink. As early as today called for the mining, tea, who was admitted late Ming, a Chuan, Shuren of the TU. "Clearly, the Han," Tu "has been specifically beverage word" tea "in pronunciation," tea "from" Tu "isolated, and embarked on the" independence "road of development. But "tea" the emergence of the word is accompanied by the development of the tea things and commercial activities have become increasingly frequent, until later in the Tang Dynasty, is also in line with the new symbol of a people's social life after such a text change in the law.
China will start from the tea, There are different theories about, the Western Han Dynasty, tea drinking has been a matter of the official literature, drinking tea when the starting time earlier than some. Tea appears to cultural characteristics, in the Han, Wei and Jin Dynasty, Northern and Southern Dynasties period.
Tea Culture Broadly speaking, the tea at the natural sciences and humanities tea in terms of both human society is in the process of the historical practice of creating and tea-related material and spiritual wealth combined. In a narrow sense, focusing on the human sciences tea, tea mainly refers to the spiritual and social functions. As the science of tea has become an independent system, which now often say the tea culture emphasis on the humanities.
The influence of tea culture on Chinese civilization
1、the three countries before the tea culture of the Enlightenment
Many of the books found that the tea set for 2737-2697 BC, its history can be pushed to Sanhuangwudi. Eastern Han Hua, "The Fresh": "Kucha for food, meaning benefits" of the medical records of the value of tea. Western Han Dynasty tea to the country of origin named "Tu-Ling", that is, Hunan Chaling. To San Guowei generation "-Blair" has the earliest documented the method of tea cakes and drinking: Story of the Pakistani Inter-for cake, a pie-old man leaves to a paste of rice. Tea in the form of material and infiltration to other human sciences and the formation of tea culture.
2、Jin Dynasty, the seeds of the Northern and Southern Dynasties tea culture
With the rise of the literati tea, the tea poetry Gough increasingly available, tea has been out as a general form of eating into the cultural circles, will play the spirit of social role. Jin Dynasty, Northern and Southern Dynasties period, Menfa system has been formed, not only the emperor, nobility amassed a wave of officials and scholars generally proud boast, multi-effect Plaster Liang Hou Wei. In this case, some people of insight to "Yang Lian." Thus, there is satisfied that the land, Huanwen to tea and wine at all. South Qishizuwu emperor is a relatively enlightened Emperor, he did not Hei Yu Yan, under Yi Zhao before his death, he said after the funeral to be thrifty as possible, not to Sansheng for offerings, only put more Ganfan, fruit cake and Chafan can. And to "the world Guijian, with such a system." Satisfied that the land, Huanwen, Emperor Wu Qi, where tea is not only refreshing to quench their thirst, it began work in a community, into a tea hospitality, to worship and that a Kind of spirit and sentiment of the means. Tea has not entirely the use of its natural value used by the people but entered the spirit of the area.
Wei, Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties period, the world disorder, all kinds of ideological and cultural exchanges collision, supernaturalism very popular. Metaphysics is the period of the Wei, Jin, a philosophical idea, mainly糅合Confucian thinking of the Lao Zi and Zhuang Zi-yi. Xuan Xuejia most of the so-called Fellows, the first to the door, the face, the instrument only, Hyun-loving nothingness from the light. Eastern Jin Dynasty, furans North Korea, the affluent Kangnam Scholars to be temporary to meet, hang around all day in Qingshanxiushui between the light winds to continue to develop, resulting in many light homes. Initially, there are more than idle talk Jiutu home, and later, talk of the wind gradually developed to the general literate. Xuanxue Jia-speech, also general-talk rhetoric. Liquor make people excited, but drinking more would be stricken manner, nonsense, failed Yaguan. The tea-drinking and may be Jingri always clear, it is clear thinking, calm attitude. Moreover, the general terms of the literati, the whole day dealing with Jiurou, of the economy, will not allow. Days, many Xuan Xuejia, talk to wine home from the village. In them, where tea has been treated as a mental phenomenon.
With Buddhism, Taoism up, and have tea and Buddhism, Taoism linked. In Taoism, the tea is to help Lian "inner alchemy" or-down muddy, light-weight-for-bones, Xiu Changshengbulao a good way to the body in Buddhism, the tea is a brooding meditation required of Of the show. Although this has not yet formed a complete religious tea ceremony and the ideological principles set out tea, tea has been divorced from the diet as a form of state, has significant social, cultural functions, the Chinese tea culture clues.
3、the formation of the Tang Dynasty tea culture
780, Lu Yu, "the tea," tea culture of the Tang Dynasty is a landmark. Tea has summed up its natural and human sciences double content of the tea arts, Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism into the three tea, the pioneering spirit of the Chinese tea ceremony. After tea and a large number of books, poems tea, "tea in", "JIANCHALING water", "Cai Cha", "16 soups." Tang tea culture and the formation of the Zen on the rise, the benefits of tea is refreshing thought, spermatogenic Zhike function, the temple advocates tea, tea trees planted around the temple, the development of the tea ceremony, a tea appear, the first election of tea, The matter was tea activities. China's Tang Dynasty in the form of tea ceremony at the palace tea, the tea ceremony of the temple, the literati tea ceremony.
4、 the prosperity of the Song Dynasty tea culture
Song tea has been a great development, and promote the development of the tea culture, the literati in a professional Tea Associations, an official of the "social soup", a Buddhist, "1,000 clubs." Song Taizu Zhao Kuangyin tea is an of disabilities, in court and authorities in the establishment of tea things, the court has been using tea grades. Tea-ceremony system has become, thanks to the win over Secretary of tea has become the emperor, with relatives an important means, but also give foreign envoys. As for the lower social and vitality of tea culture is more lively, some of movement, the neighbourhood to "Xiancha" You Ke, to respect the "gold ingot tea", when engaged to "tea", the time of the marriage to "the tea", when roommate "A tea." Cha Doo civil wind has brought Preparing cooking point of a series of changes.
Since the Yuan Dynasty, the tea culture has entered a period of twists and turns. Song expansion of the tea culture and the social dimension of cultural forms, tea things are booming, but the tea to complicated, trivial, luxury, lost the Tang Dynasty tea culture profound ideological connotation, too delicate tea flooded the spirit of the tea culture, lost Its noble profound nature. In court, nobles, scholars there, drinking tea became a "drink at the child" and "drinking style," and "Play tea."
5、 that the universal culture of Qing-Cha
At this point there has been steaming green, Chaoqing, Hong Qing, and other tea, tea drinking has been changed to "minority bubble", many of the Ming Dynasty scholar Aston handed down the left for, such as snow star "Pengcha picture," " Tea map ", Wen Zhengming's" Huishan tea party "," Lu Yu Pengcha plans, "Tea plans. " The increase in tea, tea art is different, the style of Tea Ware, texture, pattern Qianzibaitai. Tea exports to the Qing Dynasty have become one of the official sector, the tea, tea, tea countless poems.
6、 the development of modern tea culture
After the founding of New China, China's annual output of tea from 1949 to 7500 T development in 1998, more than 60 million T. Tea a substantial increase in material wealth for the development of China's tea culture to provide a solid foundation in 1982, set up in Hangzhou, the first to promote tea culture for the purpose of social groups - the "tea house", established in 1983 in Hubei " Lu Yu Tea Culture Research Society, "1990" were the Federation of Chinese tea "was set up in Beijing, 1993," the China International Tea Culture Research Society "in the establishment of Island Lake, in 1991 China Tea Museum in Hangzhou West Lake Township officially opened. 1998 China International Tea Cultural Exchange Peace Museum completed. With the rise of tea culture and tea houses throughout the run more. International Tea Culture Symposium has been opened to the fifth sector, has attracted Japan, South Korea, the United States, Sri Lanka and Hong Kong and Taiwan has participated. The main provincial cities and counties in the tea production in the host "Tea Day", such as Fujian's Wuyi Yancha section of the city, Yunnan's Pu'er tea festival, Zhejiang Xinchang, Taishun, Hubei and Britain Hill, the Tea Festival in Xinyang, Henan abound. To have tea as the carrier, to promote comprehensive economic and trade development.
Chinese tea culture and tea culture in Europe and America or Japan, a great difference. Chinese tea culture has a long history, profound, not only contains the material and cultural level, also contains a deep spiritual level. Tea by Lu Yu of the Tang Dynasty in the history of Chinese tea culture and sounded the horn. Since then, the spirit of tea permeates the court and society, into the Chinese poetry, painting, calligraphy, religion, medicine. For thousands of years, China has not only accumulated a great deal about tea cultivation, production of material culture but also accumulated rich spirit of the tea culture, which is unique to China's tea culture, a cultural study area.